How I Do It: Callus Debridement and the Diabetic Foot

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Dr. Haywan Chiu

Haywan Chiu, DPM, is a practicing podiatrist in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He has a special interest in the diabetic foot. Haywan runs Diabetic Foot Guardian, an easily digestible resource for patients regarding feet and diabetes.

 

Callus Debridement Can Be Diagnostic

Calluses form when shear forces and pressure induce the epidermis to reinforce itself. In patients with diminished pain sensation such as in diabetic neuropathy, continued friction from shear forces and pressure evolves the callus into a blister, then a blood blister (figure 1). When I see a bloody foot callus, I know that at some point, there was a break in the dermis. I don’t know if it has healed on its own or if it has expanded into a full blown ulcer because I can’t see past the callus. In fact, some calluses can be so thick I can’t even see the blood underneath! The only way to find out what’s hiding is to debride the callus.

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From Evidence to Practice: Managing Pain, Agitation and Delirium in the ICU

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Dr. Kim Medlej

Kamal (Kim) Medlej, MD, is an attending physician in the department of emergency medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and fellowship-trained in critical care, and a longtime contributor to MDCalc. Here’s Dr. Medlej’s take on applying evidence on managing pain, agitation, and delirium to his patients in the ICU.

Pain, agitation, and delirium (the ICU triad) are common in critically ill patients, and can be challenging for clinicians to manage, both in (1) ruling out and treating potential underlying causes, and (2) choosing appropriate sedatives and analgesics in those patients who need them.

This is a fascinating area of critical care medicine, although it can also be difficult and frustrating. While our insight and screening tools have improved, the management of patients with pain, agitation, and/or delirium remains difficult. This is a large topic with a significant amount of literature and opinions. This brief overview is in no way comprehensive, but more a personal view, approach and practice.

Continue reading “From Evidence to Practice: Managing Pain, Agitation and Delirium in the ICU”